The author has systematically compilied all of the Houghton surname listings and information in the US Census from 1790 to 1940. It took 12 years and includes 45,000 Houghton and Haughton heads of households and family listings. The current findings are listed under "Houghtons in the Census" on the Main Page or you can select specific Houghtons listed in the Houghton Surname Index.
Michael J. Houghton has contributed to the Houghton Surname Project a compilation of all Houghton surname references in the 1790 to 1930 US Censuses in Excel files that can be dowloaded and searched (Once you click and download into Excel, use alt-F) :
1790 Census 1800 Census 1810 Census
1820 Census 1830 Census 1840 Census
1850 Census 1860 Census 1870 Census
All Houghton Listings in all US Censuses
(This contains both an unsorted and sorted listing of all Houghtons listed in 1790 to 1930 censuses)
(Double Click the specific census you want)